God's-Eye View of English GrammarWhiz

This is an all-at-once design document for the English grammar currently shipping in BibleTrans. To understand how we got here, see the "English Grammar Step by Step" tutorial in the BibleTrans on-line documentation (linked from the Welcome screen).

As I begin to write this, there are large parts of this grammar -- and apparently the translation engine itself -- that I no longer remember how they work. I have marked these with a "Sad Mac"  icon to remind me to come back and study them in more detail, perhaps by running a translation and watching the log for what happens. By the time you read this, all such icons should be gone and replaced with corrected descriptions.

First we start with the general structure of a BibleTrans grammar, without reference to any particular language.

Grammar rules are placed in the export file in the order they must be found upon import, which depends mostly on which rules must be seen before they can be mentioned in other rules. Rules may be created and modified in the editor in any order, but some rules cannot be completed until they rules they depend on have been properly defined. This is the file order:

Global Variables
Categories (including Category variables and linkages)
Conditional Value rules
Set-Variable rules
Syntax Lines
Lexical Form rules
Node Shape rules
Morphological rules
Lexical rules
Radio buttons and Checkboxes are generally dispersed through the file, associated with the grammar elements they are linked to.

Syntax Lines

BibleTrans grammars in general, and English in particular, can best be understood as a set of nested Syntax Lines, which are typically propositions over parts of speech including noun and verb phrases; the noun phrases and the proposition modifiers may contain additional propositions and/or noun phrases. Each of these parts of speech is controlled by a Syntax Line rule, so that is the foundation of this overview. Individual semantic tree nodes are connected to Syntax Line rules through Lexical rules that connect first to Node Shape rules, and through them to selected Syntax Lines, and also to the variables defined to hold tree part references for those syntax lines.

The Syntax Lines specify the word and phrase order of the translated text by means of the order of the tiles in the line. Each tile may be:

* Some specialized output items like capitalization or space insertion/deletion, or a User category initialization (which instantiates new blank copies of all the variables in that category),

* Another Syntax Line, which defines the component order of that particular part of its parent line,

* A Set-Variable rule, which assigns values to variables used later in the Syntax Line or outside it,

* A Conditional Value rule, which returns a value -- typically a word to be emitted as part of the translated text,

* A Table rule, which is a more structured way to return a value that can be emitted, or

* A Variable containing some piece of text or a number, which is emitted as part of the translated text, or else

* A Tree variable, which causes the translation engine to "walk" that subtree and do whatever the lexical rules for the nodes in that subtree call for, typically invoking other Syntax Lines recursively.

The Syntax Line rules initially get invoked by being attached to a Node Shape rule, and each of Syntax Line's designated variables linked to a named subtree of that node by a line that "connects the dots". The Node Shape rule does not determine translated text word order, only which Syntax Line gets used, and what to do with the subtrees, which are typically connected to tree variables to be walked at a later time, when that variable occurs in a Syntax Line.

Syntax Line rules can also be invoked by being one of the tiles in another Syntax Line.

Other Grammar Elements

At the bottom of the grammar are the Lexical rules, one for each Louw&Nida or ABP Extended concept in the tree. Each Lexical rule specifies which Node Shape rule it drives (if any) and which Lexical Form rule defines its parameters, and then specifies one text snippet for each named parameter in its respective Lexical Form. When a tree is traversed ("walked") during translation, at every node visited, the named parameters are instantiated as local Variables within the Lexical rule and given the values specified for this concept. Then the designated Node Shape rule is invoked.

The first thing a Node Shape rule does is, if it has a selected ("early") Set-Variable rule, that rule is invoked to set up any Variables that may be used in the remainder of the Node Shape rule, most notably including a variable that may select which variant ("line") of the Node Shape rule to use. Once a variant is selected, it specifies a Syntax Line to use, and the variables listed as available to that Syntax Line get linked individually (by "connecting the dots") to subtrees of the node that invoked this Node Shape rule.

Set-Variable rule determines the value to be assigned to one or more Variables in its scope, each variable in one line, in the order they are assigned. Variables can be set multiple times to different values in the same rule by the same variable appearing on several lines, each new value possibly depending on its previous value. The value given to a variable can be a constant (number or text), the value from another variable, or else whatever value is returned by a Table or Conditional Value rule.

Conditional Value rule consistes of a series of condition lines, with a value to be returned for each condition. The last line is always a default value to be returned if none of the conditions evaluated true. The conditions and the returned values may be any combination of other values, derived from a Table lookup or another Conditional Value or a Variable, combined with arithmetic or string or boolean operators in any way that makes sense.

Table rule specifies one or two numeric Variables as indices, then selects a  row and possibly a column based on those values, and returns the Table value there. Table values must be constants, either a number or a text string. Tables are useful for efficiently building inflection affixes and pronoun stems. Conditional Values are more flexible but also more cumbersome, because they can depend on more than two variables (or even values not in variables) and can return values that are not constant (that is, the same conditions might return different values at different times). A table with no index variables can be used to present a constant value to a Syntax Line, or a large string constant to be assigned to a variable in Set-Variable rule (which otherwise limits its constants to four or fewer characters).

There are also category tables for giving constant values to specified Variables when particular nodes are encountered in a tree walk.

Variables may be defined within any of 31 categories, or else global and visible to any rule. Most rules have a selector for choosing which category from which to choose its variables. Global variables can be further distinguished as subtree (or "Tree") variables; using a Tree variable in a Syntax Line walks that subtree instead of generating output directly.

All the variables of a given category are created new and blank whenever that category is opened, such as during a tree walk by entering a Proposition 0.4 or Thing 0.3 node, or one of the Discourse Relations, or explicitly with one of the specified User categories in a Syntax Line. These new variables disappear again when the rule that instantiated them is finished and exits.

English Syntax

Most of the complexity of the English grammar can be understood by a sequential examination of what happens in the respective Syntax Lines. We start at the top, with discourse relations, proceeding through propositions to noun phrases. This is somewhat out of order, but discusses related Syntax lines together.

Syntax Line 1 CoRelns

There are three variants of this line, but only #2 (for binary relations) and #3 (for list relations) are used. Binary relation shapes 1538 "*pair" and 1542 "*pair+mods" each define two subtrees (the "mods" subtree of "*pair+mods" is ignored at this time). The two subtrees are walked in sequence, part1 first, then whatever connecter is set in RelnLex by the Lexical rule, then part2.

I seem to have fogotten exactly how List relation shapes 1537 "*list" and 1539 "*seqB-m-E" work, but both have only one actual subtree in lexical parameter LxtCont, which is attached (in this grammar) to Variable Connection 3. The translation engine apparently knows this is a tree list, so when it comes up in Syntax Line 1 CoRelns[3] it automatically invokes Variable Connection 3, which in turn brings up Syntax Line 7 ListClause for each node in the list.

All the category variables -- including pasty, which is examined in Conditional Value 22 Scrooge and assigned then incremented in Set-Variable 29 AdjPast -- are initialized blank, so Set-Variable 29 AdjPast has no effect except for concept 0.11 Narrative, where pasty gets initialized to 4 in the category table.

In any case, as the subtrees of any coordinating relations get walked, more coordinating relations will be encountered, or else propositions, Syntax Line 3.

Syntax Line 7 ListClause

This handles the individual propositions in a list of propositions goverened by Syntax Line 1 CoRelns[3]. The lexical parameter LxtCont contains a reference to the current proposition, but the variable is also attached to Variable Connection 3, which would try to bring up the same Syntax line recursively if we used it directly [ I need to fix that in the translation engine to prevent such a catastrophe]. Therefore Set-Variable 7 SetListClaw copies it into available category variable mopart, which does not have that problem. PN-Conditional Value 10 PreList chooses the appropriate punctuation or separator for each clause in the list by comparing the built-in variables ListPosition and ListCount. ListPosition counts down from ListCount to 1 during the list traversal, so we know we are doing the first proposition in the list when they are equal, and we know we are doing the last when ListPosition=1. Any propositions between the first and last get prefixed by a semicolon, unless marked for a New Sentence 0.313. Finally, whatever proposition is in the node now also in mopart is processed through Syntax Line 3.

Syntax Line 4 LetterForm

Discourse relation 0.17 Epistolary is realized into English in a specialized form, supported by this Syntax line. There are several conventional English letter forms, the most common consisting of the addressee at the front and the sender at the end. I chose instead the standard email form as more closely matching the NT Greek form, with the sender and addressee first, followed by the body of the message. For no particular reason I chose Table 4 LetterPrep to contain the formulary separators identifying the sender and addressee, and for beginning the body of the letter. The table is indexed by category variable Dseq, which is incremented +1 in Set-Variable 4 LetterSet for each element of the letter form, thus also stepping through the table entries for each time it appears in the Syntax line.

Syntax Line 2 SubRelns

Subordinating relations can only happen as modifiers under propositions, and there is only one node shape for all of them. However, in English (and probably other languages also) some subordinate propositions come before the main (parent) proposition, while others come after it. This is determined in the Early Set-Variable 12 SuborProper rule, which determines which kind of relation this is using the PN-Conditional Value 12 EarlyLateSubs to examine the cases and return values for the different options. Category variable Rclass is always initialized blank when the subordinating relation node lexical rule is entered, and this tells EarlyLateSubs to make the determination, which it returns as a number --  apparently 0 or 4 or 8, but I don't see exactly how -- then subsequent calls increment that to 1/5/9 then 2/6/10 and so  on, which is used to return a tree or nothing as appropriate to build two variables, PreProps containing the subtree when it is to be fronted, and SubProps containing the subtree when it is not fronted, both otherwise empty.

Again, I seem to have fogotten exactly how it happens, but some subordinate clauses get fronted only sometimes, which according to my notes, is flagged in the variable Sub1st, but I seem to have forgotten how.

Syntax Line 3 Propns

This is where the hard work happens. Every verb node shape links to this Syntax Line, but two of them do an initializing call to Set-Variable 5 SetImpers to preset the Subject to "it" for impersonal orienters; the others all within the calling node shape rule set Subject to the agent or participant subtree, which will then be rendered as the English grammar subject.

Some semantic roles are fronted, for example in relative clauses, but it takes some effort to find them, because the semantic tree does not politely mark them for English (other languages being different, and this being a language-neutral tree). Counting the process of setting up subject-verb agreement, I needed 53 lines of Set-Variable rules, which I subdivided into Set-Variable 3 SetAgree followed sequentially by Set-Variable 9 R1Fro, 10 R2Fro, and finally by Set-Variable 11 R3Fro. Some of the semantic roles will be blank (unfilled from this node shape) and default to not fronted. Hopefully only one of them qualifies as the relative pronoun for fronting.

Once the initialization is complete, we can start to emit the fronted subordinate proposition PreProps (if any), then whatever fronted role was selected in FrontedRole (if any), then the subject and verb including subject-verb inversion, followed by whatever semantic roles didn't get fronted, adverbs, prepositional phrases, and non-fronted subordinate propositions (inclusing the content of orienters).

English adverbs can also occur before the verb or in several other places in the clause, but it is not ungrammatical to put them all here after the semantic roles and before the prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can similarly be moved around somewhat for emphasis, but these subtleties are beyond the scope of this grammar.

We could do subject-verb inversion in either of two ways, possibly by replicating the subject and/or everywhere it might occur, but suppressing it in all the places where it is not, or else by replicating the verb phrase on both sides of the subject, and suppressing in each instance the parts of the verb phrase that belong to the other side. I chose the former strategy for negation, and the latter for subject-verb inversion, as each seemed slightly simpler in their place. English verb phrases are by no means simple, but they aren't too difficult if you understand how they work. In order to repeat some or all of the verb phrase before the subject, I gave it its own Syntax Line 13 VerbPhr.

Between the two passes through the verb phrase I used Set-Variable 14 RevertSele to restore a couple variables to initial conditions that otherwise get altered in processing the verb phrase, and to set category variable vPh2 = 2 so Conditional Value rules that depend on which pass is active can know that.

Syntax Line 13 VerbPhr

The English verb phrase has five fixed positions -- I call them "slots" -- for properly inflected components of the verb. The final slot contains the actual verb being inflected and is never empty, but the various helpers in the preceding four slots may be omitted if not needed for the particular tense and action and voice of this inflection. Each non-empty slot position controls the form of inflection of the next non-empty slot; the first non-empty slot is inflected (if it can be) to agree with the subject and (if so) past tense. These are the five slots and their effects on the following slot:

1. The first slot is uninflected and used to signify future or ability or subjunctive, or else contains the properly inflected helper verb "do" which is used for emphasis or for subject-verb inversion when no other slot is filled. When the first slot is filled, the next non-empty slot is always in the infinitive form.

2. The second slot can only be filled with the properly inflected helper verb "have" and controls the perfective tenses. If it is filled, the next non-empty slot after this is always in the past participle form.

3. The third slot is the helper verb "be" and controls the continuative aspect. If present, the next non-empty slot after this is always in the present participle (+ing) form.

4. The fourth slot is also the helper verb "be" and controls the passive voice. If present, the next (and last) non-empty slot (which is always the main verb) is again in the past participle form. The third and fourth slots are distinguished by the inflected form of the next word.

5. The fifth and final slot is the main verb, and is never omitted. However its form is determined by the most recent non-empty slot (if any) preceding it. Most first slot words are uninflected; otherwise the first non-empty slot is inflected for present or past; all subsequent slots are inflected as determined by the previous non-empty slot.

Negation and subject inversion (questions) both insert their respective components after the first verb slot, but never after the main verb. If no helper slots would otherwise be filled, then the properly inflected helper verb "do" is inserted in the first slot (with corresponding effect on the main verb). All of this complexity is supported in the VerbPhr Syntax line by replicating the verb part in category variable vWord five times, preceded each time by the setup rule Set-Variable 13 SlotPrep to ensure that the properly inflected helper or main verb (or else empty) is in vWord each time, and then followed each time (except the last, where it cannot) by Conditional Value 6 NegQ to insert the negation (if any) exactly once where it belongs.

There are a number of Conditional Value rules supporting the work of Set-Variable 13 SlotPrep. Conditional Value 7 DidNeg responds to the same conditions as Conditional Value 6 NegQ, but returns the opposite result, so that after the category variable negate has been inserted, it is cleared to blank and subsequent insertions have no effect.

The inflection of each slot is controlled by the previous non-blank slot. This is recorded as a number in category variable VformSele, which selects one of eight inflected forms from a list in each verb. VformSele is initialized with the proper inflection required for subject-verb agreement (and past, if so) by Set-Variable 3 SetAgree calling upon Conditional Value 3 SubjAgree to one of the following values:

1  Infinitive (only after slot 1)
2  Past participle (only after slot 2 or 4)
3  Present participle (only after slot 3)
4  1st-person singular present
5  3rd-person singular present
6  Plural or 2nd person present
7  Singular past, except 2nd person
8  Plural or 2nd person past
Conditional Value 5 NonBlankSlot examines the slot number in category variable SlotPosn, and if the slot was non-blank (category variable VerbParts) in the appropriate slot number, sets VformSele to 1,2, or 3 as needed. This is done after the verb has been emitted for this slot, and before the slot number in SlotPosn has been incremented for the next slot.

Conditional Value 4 MakeSlotVerb looks at the slot number SlotPosn, then chooses the appropriate helper verb for that slot, or blank if none is called for. There are eight comma-delimited items in the full specification of a verb inflection (see the list above); Conditional Value 13 InflectVerb will chose one of those based on VformSele, but if that item is blank it defaults to the first (infinitive) item as a convenience. When subject-verb inversion is in effect (category verb InverQ is non-blank), InflectVerb also returns blank for every slot after the first non-blank during the first pass, and only for the first non-blank slot during the second pass; otherwise it is entirely blank during the first pass. This gets the first non-blank slot in front of the subject when needed, and not otherwise.

Predicate adjectives are treated like a passive inflected verb, except that the adjective is in the main verb slot. They are distinguished by a separate Lexical Form (preserved in the predefined variable LexRuleForm).

Conditional Value 31 Get1verb is used only in comparisons, which are handled separately through Syntax Line 31 CmprLine.

Syntax Line 26 Ambient

Although 0.115 Ambience is the only case in the English grammar, it is possible to link a Syntax line to a particular Lexical rule. The syntax line emits no text, but it does afford a way to sequence Set-Variable rules before anything else happens, in what is otherwise just another verb.

Syntax Line 12 AdvbLn

Most adverbs are uninflected, and a Syntax line would be unnecessary. However if the adverb is a matter of comparison, then there might be a comparative form of the adverb to use ("better" instead of "well"). and this Syntax line calls PN-Conditional Value 14 InflecAdverb to make that determination.

Syntax Line 28 OrienterProp

An orienter is a proposition that contains as one or more of its defined component parts additional propositions. The most common and recognizable form of orienter is a quotation, where the subject speaks (or writes or thinks) something, and "here is what he said..." In English we have direct and indirect quotations. A direct quote uses pronouns inflected as from the speaker, while an indirect quote uses pronouns from the perspective of the narrator. A direct quote within a direct quote would change the pronoun perspective each time. These two forms are distinguished within the Conditional Value 28 MultiOrienter, which is called by Set-Variable 28 SetOriVar to define the quotation marks and set up the first- and second-person pronouns. Note that category variable Quotation is attached to Variable Connection 2, so that as soon as an orienter node shape attaches the content subtree to this variable, the OrienterProp is activated when it comes up for processing in Syntax Line 3.

Another form of orienter is imposed on us by the need to present impersonal remarks about some action, such as its necessity or advisability. This is handled in the second variant of OrienterProp, and the subject-verb relation of the internal proposition is converted to a possessive of an abstract  noun, such as "My trip was fun" for "I enjoyed that I travelled."   However, I seem to have forgotten exactly how this works.

Syntax Line 31 CmprLine

The syntax for comparisons varies widely between languages, so the semantic tree is rather arcane to support the most possible different realizations. This makes each language realization a little harder than it might be for other kinds of propositions, but none radically harder. The general tree form for a comparison is an orienter, where the first subtree is some adjective or adverb found in both of the propositions that are the next two subtrees, and the stative "verb" of the parent proposition tells us whether the second proposition is less, more, or the same as the first. For example, the sentence "Lazarus is not as rich as Zacchaeus" would be encoded literally as "[less wealthy] Zacchaeus is wealthy; Lazarus is wealthy" (but less so). It may come out a little stilted in English, but we can consistently say "Lazarus is less wealthy than Zacchaeus is," or in the worst case, "Lazarus is wealthy less than Zacchaeus is wealthy." For some adjectives, it might be preferable to use the comparative form, "Zacchaeus is richer than Lazarus" but that is more restructuring that seemed advisable. However, if there is a comparative form of the adjective that can be used directly, we do that.

PN-Conditional Value 31 GetDiff does most of the work in deciding how to realize the comparison. Its default value (the last line) invokes a special Tree comparison operator, which compares the two propositions: if they are structurally identical except for a single semantic role, then that role is pulled out into category variable DiffNoun as the standard against which to run the compare, and we choose the second variant of the "*compare" node shape rule, which is also the second line of Syntax Line 31 CmprLine; otherwise DiffNoun is left blank and we get two full propositions using the first variant and line respectively.

Set-Variable 31 CmprSetup calls on PN-Conditional Value 31 GetDiff five more times to separately extract the adjective or adverb from the previous treewalk, and then to determine (or fabricate) its comparative form, and to strip off the semantic role node from over the subject (if that is the DiffNoun) but not off the other roles. These could be separate Conditional Values, but I was running out (the next version will have a lot more to use). Set-Variable 27 BlankMore is invoked between the two propositions to reset a couple variables for the second proposition.

Syntax Line 25 RelvProp

When a proposition offers some information about the Thing in a noun phrase, it is realized in English as a relative clause, where the RelvProp Syntax Line is invoked by the "*relProp" node shape rule after calling Early Set-Variable 2 SetRelPro to capture the noun number and the clause subtree, and then to capture the subtree separately to override the pronoun generator for descriptive relative clauses only. In English, the difference between the two kinds of relative clauses is the relative pronoun used, "which" for descriptive, and "that" for restrictive, but   I don't see how this happens.

Syntax Line 21 AdposLn

Prepositional phrases can occur in both propositional and noun phrase contexts, both in the semantic tree as in English; so there is no need to distinguish them as they are in the tree. We also use one of these variants for most of the semantic roles, and for some statives and possessives when they should be realized in English as prepositional phrases.

AdposLn line 1 is the default case, which handles most prepositional phrases and also all semantic roles except subject. The direct object comes through here with its "preposition" in lexical parameter AdpLex already blank. In some cases another semantic role gets realized as direct object in English, so the PN-Conditional Value 8 OptAdLex suppresses the preposition for those cases. The object of the preposition is always in the Objective case (category variable NounCase = "O").

Line 2 is selected for stative propositions 0.102 ClassMember and 0.103 Attributive, and for 33.126 Name.  It seems to be just a way of stirnging some words together, with no case management or any such thing.

Line 3 converts the prepositional phrase "of [whatever]" into a possessive which is then fronted before the head noun of the noun phrase  by magical (unspecified) means.

Line 4 similarly converts the prepositional phrase into a possessive, but prefers the nounless possessive ("mine", "yours", "hers" etc). It seems to do this when a predicate adjective is used statively, that is, directly under a 0.4 Proposition node, but  I don't understand why.

Line 5 is used for apposition 0.225, and also for coordinating more than two Things in a list with 0.222-0.224; if there are only two, then 89.92 "and" conjumction is the preferred tree encoding. These take the inherited noun case, and emit a comma or "and" separator.

The object of a preposition is always a noun phrase (0.3 Thing) or possibly a Thing over a conjunction of Things. We look at Syntax Line 23 NounPhr (noun phrase) next.

Syntax Line 23 NounPhr

The noun phrase is less complicated than its verbal counterpart. Note that the pronoun generator overrides the whole noun phrase handling, but the grammar determines (typically in PN-Conditional Value 1 PronounSelect) whether that happens at all. Some English nouns (names, for example) are inherently anarthrous; others become so in the presence of certain modifiers such as possessors. Conditional Value 26 theArt makes this determination, and conditionally returns category variable Article, which is set from the tree walk when it encounters a 0.243 Indefinite or 0.244 Definite Referential Thing modifier.

Category variable Possessor comes next (or rather, in its place, since they won't both be non-empty) if there is a fronted possessor (a pronoun, or else a proper name which can have "'s" added), as determined by Early Set-Variable 11 PosOrPrep calling PN-Conditional Value 11 PrePossess repeatedly.

We have two classes of adjectives, quantifiers and other kinds which come first, then (the default) other kinds of adjectives, which come after the quantifiers. These are determined lexically by a "1" in the Lexical rule parameter Jclass, which is otherwise blank. We run through the list of adjectives in category variable UsedAdj (copied from tree list variable Adjects) twice, presetting category variable Jseq to 1 or something else for matching against Jclass, and then let Syntax Line 24 AdjecLin pick and choose them in each pass as they come up.

Certain kinds of kinship terms (in category variable LateKin) and Titles (both handled by Syntax Line 22 WhoseKin) also precede the head noun, which is inflected in Conditional Value 23 InflectNoun, if it is plural and/or possessive case. It is then followed by explicitly updating the pronoun reference (which is thus effective in the following phrases), then any prepositional phrases and relative clauses.

Syntax Line 29 PronoGen

There is a specific Pronoun rule for designating a particular Table or Syntax line as how pronouns are generated, and a particular PN-Conditional Value (PronounSelect) to decide whether this noun phrase (0.3 Thing) is or will become a pronoun. Exactly what counts as a pronoun in English is a little gray around the edges; I chose nine distinct pronouns and Table 1 PronInflect provides inflections for four cases (Subject, Object, Possessive, and ReflexPossessive). PN-Conditional Value 7 PronFlect, as called by the PronoGen Syntax line, further picks out exceptions for special treatment.

The pronoun generator completely overrides normal Thing handling, so because we still want descriptive relative clauses and some adjectives, these are added onto the PronoGen Syntax line.

Syntax Line 22 WhoseKin

"Social role" titles and kinship relations are separately collected into category variables LateKin and Titles respectively for treatment in turn in the noun phrase. This Syntax line has its own User Category 1 and category variables, so that it will not interfere with its parent noun phrase. Category variable TitleKin contains the (noun, not Thing) tree node of the role or relationship; variable owner has the Thing reference to whoever has that title or relation (the second subtree), possibly the same noun number as the parent Thing. Hmm,  I'm a little unclear how these node shapes get triggered, there's no reference to them in the English grammar Lexical rules; maybe it's magical.

PN-Conditional Value 22 KinOpt finally returns either the lexical form of the contained noun, or else blank if unneeded.

Syntax Line 24 AdjecLin

Some adjectives need a certain amount of inflection, such as plural for "this" = "these", and comparatives where used in comparisons, which decisions are made in Conditional Value 24 InflecAdj, which is the sole reason for this Syntax line. Also, because adjectives are designated as one of two Jclass classes, the noun phrase runs through the list twice, doing the Jclass = 1 adjectives first, then all the rest. All this is determined in Conditional Value 24 InflecAdj.

This is all the Syntax Lines. Hopefully,  after I clean up the gaps, it should be a fairly complete description of the English grammar.

Working Draft, 2013 February 6